Bonta, Bruce D. 1996. “Conflict Resolution Among Peaceful Societies: The Culture of Peacefulness.” Journal of Peace Research 33(4): 403-420.

The literature about 24 peaceful peoples was examined to determine if their ways of conflict resolution differ from the approaches to conflict found in other, more violent, societies. While the strategies for managing con­flicts employed by these peoples are comparable to those used in many other small-scale societies, their world­-views of peacefulness and the structures they use to reinforce those world-views do distinguish them from other societies. Several common notions about conflict and conflict resolution that are asserted by Western scholars can be questioned in light of the success of these societies in peacefully resolving conflicts: namely, that violent con­flict is inevitable in all societies; that punishment and armed force prevent internal and external violence; that political structures are necessary to prevent conflicts; and that conflict should be viewed as positive and necess­ary. The contrary evidence is that over half of the peaceful societies have no recorded violence; they rarely punish other adults (except for the threat of ostracism); they handle conflicts with outside societies in the same peaceful ways that they approach internal conflicts; they do not look to outside governments when they have internal dis­putes; and they have a highly negative view of conflict (journal abstract).

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