Fry, Douglas P. 1994. “Maintaining Social Tranquility: Internal and External Loci of Aggression Control.” In The Anthropology of Peace and Nonviolence, edited by Leslie E. Sponsel and Thomas Gregor, p.133-154. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1994.

Early experiences may create barriers to the expression of aggression in later life. The focus of Fry’s work is a comparison between two Zapotec communities in Oaxaca, Mexico. One is markedly more violent than the other. The difference is explained by different socialization processes. In the nonviolent community, parents model peaceful behaviors and warn their children about the conse­quences of physical aggression. In the more violent community, parents teach their children to anticipate the use of force, and model it for them in the use of corporal punishment. Substantial cross-cultural data support the importance Fry gives to socialization. [Excerpted from the editors’ introduction]

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